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Chris Brown
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Big thanks to Jonas, these two are new to me.

Both seem to match existing gallery photos. Firstly '222' lost on Highway 6 at Guincarico on 23Jun44. The date fits Federico's estimate of June-August for Toscana (Tuscany). The matches include the angle of the arm which should be holding the cupola lid, the position of the cable over the hull side and the large area of missing Zimmerit.



As Federico says, the second Tiger is numbered '33x'. Comparison with gallery photos exclude '331' and '332' as candidates. The third digit seems to be angular rather than rounded, making '334' a strong possibility. Comparison with the photo of '334' posted by Evgeniy shows matching positions for the turret and gun, the front track link on the left side of the turret is not quite vertical and the following link(s) is/are missing.



Any thoughts?

Chris

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Federico Peyrani
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Hi Chris, fast as a ligtining!

And you can also see a black shadow on 334, where the ceiling of driver's compartment was bent from the explosion!

They seem both matches! At least for 334!

Regards

Federico

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Federico Peyrani
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Another one of Kevin Smith! Zitatantwort auf diesen Beitrag erstellen Diesen Beitrag editieren/löschen Diesen Beitrag einem Moderator melden       IP Information Zum Anfang der Seite springen

Hi to all, here is again a good pic of the Tiger of Sant'Agata / Massa Lombarda - lost on April 12th, 1945.

It comes form the Filckr site of Kevin Smith, from South Africa:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/100298939@...57635111107104/

This is the Pic:
Original caption:

Knocked Out German Tank Italy 1945


Regards
Federico

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Chris Brown
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Federico has found the above photo from Kevin Smith on Flickr. It is a match for this Tiger found in the book 'Panzerwrecks 13 - Italy 2' where the location is given as Lugo and the date as probably April 1945.



As Federico suggested, the track link stowage on the driver's plate suggest it had previously been a member of 3./s.Pz.Abt.508.

Here is an old ebay photo of the same scene.



Chris

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Federico Peyrani
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I confirm the date of the beginning of the New Zealanders' attack for April 12th, 1945.

Most of the losses happened in Massa Lombarda, the next village west of Lugo.

Federico

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Chris Brown
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From the unit history of the US 776th Tank Destroyer Battalion.




Link:
http://www.tankdestroyer.net/images/stor...ry_-_Part_1.pdf

Chris

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Federico Peyrani
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Hi to all!

As the book is of an American Unit, the place is Toscana, between 22nd June and late July 1944. In fact, in the diary is written about the Cecina Area, where 504 was in action at the beginning of July, 1944.

Ah, another thing, i read that the 776th was also in action in Tunisia in March 1943 in the Mezzouna-Maknassy area against the 1. Kompanie of 504.

Regards

Federico

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Chris Brown
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Rear view of '332' matching existing gallery photos, from a post on Facebook by Paul Tjader.



Link:
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=...&type=1&theater

Chris

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Federico Peyrani
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Zitat:
Original von Øyvind Leonsen
Hello,

Here is a good shot of "111" that I can´t find here or in the gallery, unfortunately I can´t find back to the site where I found it due to a small computer crash.

Kind regards,

Øyvind




Zitat:
Original von Chris Brown
321?
The small digits look like '21'. The first digit is not a '1'. The location is not a match for #221, hence #321




Chris


Hallo, I've had an illumination, but I ask you to criticise if I'm wrong: Could 321 be 111 instead?
The turret position, bent turret hatch arm and being beside an elevated road could confirm my intuition?

Last thing, in front of the tank tere are telephone wires that you can see well in the back of the tank!

Let me know!

Regards

Federico

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Hartmut von Holdt
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"Could 321 be 111 instead?"

Absolutely, good work!

__________________
Hartmut von Holdt

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Federico Peyrani
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Thank you Hartmut!

So, I proceed to update the relative page!
[oops you already didi it! I did not see it!]

By the light and background, it seems to me that the place is from the first "Einsatz" of the unit, north of Grosseto on July [June!] 18th, 1944. A lot of Tigers were lost in this action against US troops advancing north from the city. But I have to look around in GoogleStreetView to find the exact place!


Regards

Federico

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Hartmut von Holdt
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Zitat:
Original von Federico Peyrani
Thank you Hartmut!

So, I proceed to update the relative page!
[oops you already didi it! I did not see it!]


Federico



No I didn´t, because it is not my galerie and I wont work in it without your permission.

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Hartmut von Holdt

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Allen Dail
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3rd company unidentfied Sant'Agata Massa Lombarda Zitatantwort auf diesen Beitrag erstellen Diesen Beitrag editieren/löschen Diesen Beitrag einem Moderator melden       IP Information Zum Anfang der Seite springen

A new view from News story on Veteran Dave Hanlin.
http://www.odt.co.nz/news/dunedin/340193...n-lay-poppy-dad

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Federico Peyrani
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Hi Allen,

i'm quite sure it is of the unknown 3.KP Tiger with the caption:
Sant'Agata / Massa Lombarda - lost on April 12th, 1945.

Regards
Federico

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Chris Brown
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Zitat:
Original von Chris Brown

.......

As Federico says, the second Tiger is numbered '33x'. Comparison with gallery photos exclude '331' and '332' as candidates. The third digit seems to be angular rather than rounded, making '334' a strong possibility. Comparison with the photo of '334' posted by Evgeniy shows matching positions for the turret and gun, the front track link on the left side of the turret is not quite vertical and the following link(s) is/are missing.



.........

Chris


A sharper version of this image is currently on ebay.de and confirms the number as '334'.



And facilitates matches to this old ebay photo:


And this image from the Archive of Modern Conflict, ref. E24072:



Chris.

No connection with the seller

Link:
http://www.ebay.de/itm/PB11-US-Soldat-au...=item2ee2332274

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Chris Brown
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Match to gallery photos of '222' from ebay.de.



No association with seller.

Chris.

Link:
http://www.ebay.de/itm/PB106-erbeuteter-...=item2ee27bb1fb

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Chris Brown
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From the same ebay.de series as the photo of Befehlstiger '003' discussed on the SS.Pz.Abt.101 thread.





Links:
http://www.ebay.de/itm/Foto-schwere-Panz...=item58c7815a5d
http://www.ebay.de/itm/Foto-Stab-Tiger-A...=item1c55031cbf
http://www.ebay.de/itm/Foto-Panzer-Abtei...=item58c7dcde12

No association with the seller,

Chris

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Hartmut von Holdt
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serious Chris, when ever i copy one of your pics here and try to look at them on my pc....it dosn´t work. With some other members it is the same problem. What has change?

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Hartmut von Holdt

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Chris Brown
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Nothing has changed since I switched hosting new photos from Tinypic to Photobucket in January 2015.

Do you have a problem with both the images below, or just one of them?



Chris

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Well, now I can copy them all. Yesterday it leaves a dokument on my pc wich I couln´t open. I don´t know what the problem is but fact is I had copy a lot of pics wich I can´t view again on my pc and so I don´t know what was in there.

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Hartmut von Holdt

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Chris Brown
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Original #200 Zitatantwort auf diesen Beitrag erstellen Diesen Beitrag editieren/löschen Diesen Beitrag einem Moderator melden       IP Information Zum Anfang der Seite springen

Currently on ebay.com.

Seller's description gives the location as the Anzio-Rome road, which would make this a member of 508, but the camo matches the original '200' seen at Wezep.

This should be one of two Tigers lost on 22 Jun 1944 in the area south-east of Massa Marittima, well to the north of Rome.





No connection with the seller.

Chris.

Link:
http://www.ebay.com/itm/Original-Snapsho...=item33a6523280

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Chris Brown
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Currently on Historical Media

Driver's plate camo matches gallery photos of the original '200' lost on 22JUN44 near Massa Marittima:



TIC1 tells us that the other Tiger lost that day was '211'. Anyone think that this second Tiger might be it?



No connection with the seller.

Chris.

Links:
http://historical-media.com/einzel/2016..../untitled26.jpg
http://historical-media.com/einzel/2016..../untitled27.jpg

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David Byrden
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Eric Oehlberg posted these two "original" photos on Facebook;



The forward Tiger has these matches;


  • open hatch at a similar angle
  • tree trunk ahead, curving to the left
  • spare tracks dangling off the right side
  • right mudguard bent upwards




There are also matches between the forward Tiger and this photo that Chris just posted;




  • Tiger leaning into a ditch
  • probable tree trunk behind it
  • driver's hatch very far open
  • tracks dangling off the right side
  • turret turned to the right




David

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Eric Oehlberg posted this Italian Tiger on Facebook;




  • collapsed suspension
  • engine hatch open
  • distorted mudguards


It is an obvious match to Chris' recent photo of "222";



Do we know the location?

David

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Allen Dail
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Foud original site the forward tiger with Capt Mark Reardon on rear deck and side view of 222. The Captain shot is captioned as Massa Marittima and side view of 222 is captioned as near Massa Marittima. The other rear tiger in the double rear shot is another different tiger as it has all four side skirts on left and
is missing its left rear femder. Were 222 is missing first left skirt and has both rear fenders.
I posted link to site below.
Allen

Dieser Beitrag wurde schon 2 mal editiert, zum letzten mal von Allen Dail am 30.05.2016 23:56.

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Here is link to original page the side and rear deck view are from. They are in picture set near bottom of page.
http://www.usarmy1944.com/storie-ritrovate/
Allen

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Zitat:
Original von Chris Brown
'222' lost on Highway 6 at Guincarico on 23Jun44.


Chris, could you tell me where you got that information? I can't find similar terrain near Guincarico.

David

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Chris Brown
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Great finds BTW gents.

Panzerwrecks 9 p.74 gives the location as "off Highway 6 near Giuncarico on 23 June 1944":


It is a certain match to this gallery '222' photo:


I share what I assume to be your concern that it doesn't match this other gallery '222':


I'm starting to wonder whether this latter could be the original '212'.

Following up on Capt Mark Reardon, he wrote the unit history of the 1108th Combat Engineer Group. On 23 June 1943 the group was responsible for road clearance near Grossetto. They were tasked to open Route 1 (Via Aurelia), which may provide better terrain for a match. Giuncarico is mid-way between Grossetto and Massa Marittima .

http://www.6thcorpscombatengineers.com/d...ns1108th001.pdf (see page 24)

HTH,

Chris.

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Zitat:
Original von Chris Brown




I have no doubt that these are the same Tiger.
My problem is that I can't find two small conical hills in the Giuncarico area.

David

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I have found the place where Tiger "222" was photographed. All 8 of the photos currently in the Gallery show it here.

It is at 42°57'50"N, 10°56'32"E, which is (now) a road junction 7km from Giuncarico.

The region is filled with similar-looking hills, which hampered my search. But I found it very quickly when I looked for the house instead. The central cupola is very unusual.



The two conical ridges behind the Tiger are present. But the confirmation comes from the hills that we can see in the distance;



David

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Zitat:
Original von David Byrden
Eric Oehlberg posted these two "original" photos on Facebook;



The forward Tiger has these matches;

  • open hatch at a similar angle
  • tree trunk ahead, curving to the left
  • spare tracks dangling off the right side
  • right mudguard bent upwards




There are also matches between the forward Tiger and this photo that Chris just posted;




  • Tiger leaning into a ditch
  • probable tree trunk behind it
  • driver's hatch very far open
  • tracks dangling off the right side
  • turret turned to the right




David


Joe Dell posted his photo of these two today on Facebook.

Allen

Dieser Beitrag wurde schon 1 mal editiert, zum letzten mal von Allen Dail am 06.06.2016 00:26.

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Excellent! If I can't find those hills, I'm not worth my salt....

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Wonderful Job, you all!
I just happen to disappear when things get interesting, here!
Iìll try to add some material later.

Regards
Federico

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David Byrden
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The search for the two Tigers is frustrating. Unless there is a huge coincidence of similar looking hills, they are near Massa Maritima. But I can't find the exact spot; I suspect that the road has been rebuilt and some landscaping has been done.

They are either on top of the hill beside the town, which seems unlikely, or they are on the main road here:



Any wartime maps or aerial views of the town would be useful.

David

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[UPDATED after studying combat reports]

By combining various of the photos of these two Tigers, I got an image of the horizon behind them. It matches the horizon visible from the hill of Massa Maritima.



Only the very distant hills behind this skyline are not a match. This tells us that the Tigers were at ground level, not on top of Massa Marittima, as we would expect.

By exploring the ground with Google Earth, I found that these hills could not be seen from any existing road in this perspective. It was necessary to climb the slopes north of Massa Marittima to get the correct view.

An old map shows me that the current main road did not exist in 1943. The old main road was to the north of it, just where I need it to be.

Using the two nearby small hills that we can see in the photos, I positioned these two Tigers and drew a stretch of the old road:



Now, we have an anomaly.

These do not seem to be the two Tigers lost on 22 June. Those two Tigers retreated 5km from Perolla, but that town is 6km from here. Also, they were falling back to the "new front line". They were not going sideways to another section of the front line. And finally, the German front line was south of Massa Maritima on the 22nd. So these Tigers would have been well inside German lines when the Americans somehow managed to destroy them. It makes little sense.

These must be the two Tigers that were blown up on 25 June 1943 "north of Massa Marittima" because they "could not be recovered". On that date, the Americans had already occupied the town and they were looking down on this stretch of road from above.

So, we have Tiger "200" reported as lost in one place, and a photo of the hull of "200" lost on another day in a different place.

David

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Federico Peyrani
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Hi to all,

in an account, Lt. Goldschmidt, Chef of Bergezug, stated that he was going all around the HKL and no-man's land with three of his Sdkfz. 9 Famo to recover damaged Tigers. Maybe the 200 was lost from Lt. Heim on 22nd June South of Massa Marittima, left from him (as Heim states in another report), recovered by Goldschmidt to a then safe area, and finally destroyed on 25th June as the Americans captured the nearby Hill (Massa Marittima) looking down on them and bombing with their artillery. It is also strange to me the fact that there are two Tigers destroyed one behind the other at around 50 meters of distance. It occurred rarely in Italy.
I have to find back the report of Goldschmidt in my boxes.
Unfortumately I have to end a work tonight, but I hope that tomorrow I'll be able to upload some documents.

Regards
Federico

08.06.2016 23:44 Federico Peyrani ist offline Email an Federico Peyrani senden Homepage von Federico Peyrani Beiträge von Federico Peyrani suchen Nehmen Sie Federico Peyrani in Ihre Freundesliste auf
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Zitat:
Original von Federico Peyrani
It is also strange to me the fact that there are two Tigers destroyed one behind the other at around 50 meters of distance.



You could well be correct. Tiger "200" and the other Tiger could have been placed on that road for repair. After all, if they "could not be recovered" then they were broken down. Why would 2 Tigers break down in the same place?

I now have an event page for the Tigers at Massa Marittima.

David

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Zitat:
Original von Chris Brown
It carries the turret #222 or 223 and was knocked out on 23JUN44 near Giuncarico off Highway 6.

.


"Tigers in Combat 1" doesn't report any losses for 23 June. In addition, this Tiger shows clear signs of demolition; the engine hatch was opened and an explosive was detonated on the engine.

I think this is one of the first tanks that were left behind on the retreat of 30 June. Its location certainly supports that theory. An American gun may have put that hole in the escape hatch when it was already abandoned.

It's also possible that it was damaged in the fighting earlier, and the Germans didn't count it as a loss until they had to abandon it. Fighting began just south of here on the 21st, and the Americans tried to come north along this road to reach Perolla. If this Tiger was driving north, the terrain allowed it to be seen and knocked out from 500m behind.

Have we any documents beyond "panzerwrecks" saying that this was knocked out on 23 June?

I now have an event page for Tiger 222 abandoned

David

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Federico Peyrani
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Zitat:
Original von David Byrden
Zitat:
Original von Federico Peyrani
It is also strange to me the fact that there are two Tigers destroyed one behind the other at around 50 meters of distance.



You could well be correct. Tiger "200" and the other Tiger could have been placed on that road for repair. After all, if they "could not be recovered" then they were broken down. Why would 2 Tigers break down in the same place?

I now have an event page for the Tigers at Massa Marittima.

David


Hi David, please let me explain my doubts about the location.
1. There is no trace of any road where you put it. No way, also looking at the air pictures of 1980 there is no sign, neither a path. that pushes me to dissent with the position of the road. In the pics it looks like a good road, large and well made. The place you choose is amid a meadow next to a wood. No wood there in the pictures. Road traces do not disappear in 70 years, not in such an humanised habitat as Tuscany!
2. It has more sense if the tanks were on the lower road, because so they were next to the railway station, that was much cited in Goldschmmidt report as it was where the Tiger should have been entrained and sent away.

I am now trying to find a more probable area

I have the pdf report of the US units that were employed against the Tigers in this area, maybe I can put it here. I'll try it soon.

Regards
Federico

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(Source pdf)
The Heavy Battalion Task Force In Mountainous Terrain:
Are Current Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures Adequate?
A Monograph by Major Dana J. H. Pittard - Armor

The report is form page 15 to 22. I Hope you'll enjoy it!

Armor in Italy

During operations in Italy (1943-45), the U.S. Army deployed one armored division and at least eight separate tank battalions in theater.42 The attack by Combat Command B, 1st Armored Division in the Apennines from Grossetta, Italy to the Cecina River (22-30 June 1944) is typical of U.S. armored operations in Italy. The terrain from Grossetta to the Cecina River was mountainous, laced by streams and deep gorges. There were only a few trafficable roads. Nearly every mile had its share of bridges and culverts, which the German defenders consistently demolished. The roads twisted around hills and mountains. Each road curve, with its blown bridge or culvert, became an excellent site for German road blocks and ambushes.
In attacking north, the 1st Armored Division faced the problem of covering a zone whose width was over twenty miles. The zone lacked enough routes and off-road areas for the doctrinal employment of armor. 1st Armored Division's solution to the problem was to divide the zone between its two combat commands (brigade-size units). The division placed Combat Command B in the west, Combat Command A in the east and Combat Command R (reserve) in the center. Combat Command B, commanded by Brigadier General Frank A. Allen consisted of a medium tank battalion (equipped with 75mm M4-series Sherman tanks), a light tank battalion (equipped with 37mm M5-series Stuart tanks), two armored infantry battalions, one tank destroyer company (equipped with 75mm M10 tank destroyers), one armored engineer company, a reconnaissance company, and two armored field artillery battalions. Brigadier General Allen task organized his combat command into three task forces. On the left, the task force consisted of a light tank battalion (-), an armored infantry company, and a medium tank company. The center task force included the medium tank battalion (-), an armored infantry battalion, and a reconnaissance company (-).
The two armored field artillery battalions moved behind the center task force. In the right task force Allen placed an armored infantry battalion (-), a company of light tanks, and a platoon of medium tames.
Allen based the task organization on his assessment of the superior roads available to the center task force and the suspected concentration of German armor in the center zone. The left and right task forces were weaker but more mobile based on Allen's assessment of the road network. Each of the three task forces included an engineer platoon, a tank destroyer platoon, and a reconnaissance platoon.
At 0530 on 22 June 1944 the three Combat Command B task forces attacked in zone. Advancing slowly against stiff opposition from elements of the German 162d Infantry Division and tanks from the 3d Panzer Grenadier (Mechanized) Division until forced to halt at 1350 hours in the vicinity of St. di Gavorano. Following a hard fight in the center, in which the Germans lost three Mark IV tanks, Combat Command B advanced to Cast di Pietsa by nightfall (see Figure 2).
On 23 June Combat Command B continued to attack in zone. The center task force moved off of Highway 1 and turned north into the mountains on the road to Massa Marittima. Two kilometers north of the highway the center task force had to pass through a narrow saddle. On the far side of the saddle, distributed across a small plain, nine Mark VI (Tiger) tanks waited. As the center task force tanks crossed the rise, the Tiger tanks struck. In the ensuing battle the Germans lost several Tiger tanks. However, the Germans retained control of the strong defensive position.
To relieve pressure on the center task force, Allen ordered the right task force to create a demonstration northeast of the saddle. Moving quickly, the right task force encountered few demolitions or mines and only slight enemy resistance until its light tank company moved into the open. Leading with light tanks, the right task force drove into an ambush by ten German tanks (four Mark IVs and six Tigers) supported by infantry along a small road five kilometers east of the center task force.
The right task force's light tanks were no match for the German tanks. The Germans destroyed the tank destroyer platoon and twelve light tanks. The remaining light tank platoon hastily withdrew to a blocking position three kilometers to the rear set up by an infantry company from the task force. The demonstration did not effect the main German defensive position guarding the saddle that faced the center task.
The center task force continued to fight a savage battle with the German defenders. Due to the strength of the fortified German position in the saddle, BG Allen ruled out a frontal assault. His left flank task force was unable to provide help due to the
compartmentalized terrain in the west. Aerial photographs showed a faint trail to the left of the center task force. The trail did not look like a route suitable for tanks so Allen sent a reconnaissance platoon reinforced by a tank destroyer platoon over the trail. Amazingly, the Germans left the trail unguarded, apparently relying on 'impassable terrain' for flank protection. Under cover of darkness, Allen reinforced his reconnaissance element with an infantry company and medium tank company.
By the morning of 24 June the reinforced flanking force reached high ground overlooking the saddle. Concentrated direct fire, plus well placed artillery fire from Combat Command B's two artillery battalions destroyed three more Tiger tanks. Vehicle losses and the threat against the German line of retreat forced the Germans to withdraw. Combat Command B main body (center) then moved to within sight of the town of Massa Marittima. Jomini's principle of securing the heights before moving through a valley became evident to BG Allen. Based on the losses incurred during the battle the previous day, BG Allen decided that a thorough dismounted reconnaissance would precede all future movement over mountainous terrain.
Combat Command B continued to attack north towards Massa Marittima. The right task force met heavy enemy resistance at Perolla, about five kilometers southeast of Massa Marittima. After a careful reconnaissance, the right task force scouts found a bypass for the medium tank platoon and remaining light tank platoon to use to go around the town. The right task force conducted a coordinated attack with its tanks moving east and the infantry circling west. This forced the German defenders to withdraw.
Simultaneous with the right task force's fight, the left and center task forces were fighting to seize Massa Marittima. The left task force approached on the main road to Massa Marittima. Due to the terrain, Allen split the center task force into two smaller forces. He sent one of the smaller forces over an unimproved, narrow road. While the other force, setting off across gullies and streams, made its trail as it went. Combat Command B received attachment of C Troop, 91st Reconnaissance Squadron earlier in the day. BG Allen sent C Troop around to the west of the left task force to threaten the rear of Massa Marittima.
The combined pressure of the reconnaissance troop, the left task force, the two center columns, and the right task force movement after the fight in Perolla forced a German withdrawal from Massa Marittima. Allen used Clausewitz's broad front principle against the concentrated German defense position. The appearance of five columns to their front, flanks and threatening their rear was just too much for the German defenders. The Germans did not have enough forces to conduct an adequate defense of all five approaches. After moving through Massa Marittima on 24 June, reconnaissance elements discovered that the left task forces' zone had no more roads or passable trails for nearly sixteen kilometers.
Enemy forces also occupied the hills in the left task force zone and could easily interdict the main body in the center. Before moving north, Combat Command B had to deal with the serious threat on its left flank.-*" Allen fully understood Jomini's principle of not risking a force in the valley without securing the heights. BG Allen decided to dismount his center task forces' armored infantry battalion and send them northwest of Massa Marittima. The main body in the center, with its road-bound tanks, slowly moved forward as the dismounted infantry secured the heights in the western zone.
Forced to leave their vehicles behind, the dismounted infantry battalion began to experience supply problems. Luck and the ability to move fast and aggressively enabled the dismounted infantry battalion to surprise a German battery of horse drawn artillery. The infantrymen captured forty-five personnel, the guns and several horses. The resourceful infantrymen used the captured horses to solve their supply transport problem until they reached Monterotondo, thirteen kilometers north of Massa Marittima. The infantry reached Monterotondo on the night of 27 June.
Continuing to attack north throughout the night, the infantry battalion completely exhausted itself upon reaching the outskirts of Sasso. The canalized approaches to Sasso strengthened the concentrated German defensive position around the town. The infantry battalion commander sent word to BG Allen that he could seize Sasso, but could not hold the town without tank support.
Allen sent a company of medium tanks. Since no lateral roads or even trails existed, the company of tanks picked its way over 'impassable' mountainous terrain and reached Sasso intact and on time.
Following the successful assault on Sasso, Combat Command B advanced downhill against the German Cecina River defenses. The Combat Command B tanks slowly moved in the center, alternating between mule trails and no roads to get to the river. Once the tanks arrived, the attack moved rapidly and on 30 June Combat Command B seized Castelnuovo and then established a bridgehead on the north bank of the Cecina River.
Combat Command B's attack illustrates both the merits and drawbacks of Clausewitz's theory of attacking along several routes in mountains. An advantage to moving along several routes is the enemy's inability to defend every avenue of approach with strength. Combat Command B's use of five different routes to overwhelm the German defenders at Massa Marittima illustrates this. A disadvantage to using several routes in compartmentalized terrain is the possible lack of mutual support between units. Allen's left task forces' inability to support the center task force during the fight against the German tanks defending the saddle (23-24 June 1944) is a good example of this. The withdrawal of the German tanks defending the saddle, due to the threat against the German rear, illustrates Clausewitz's theory of always orienting on a defender's line of retreat. Allen's decision to secure the hills in the left task force zone before moving the center task force is a clear example of Jomini's belief in securing the heights before moving through valleys.

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